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I. Breastfeeding, Lactation, and Postpartum Resources

III. Differences in infant feeding movements during milk-feeds at breast and with bottle:

Ardran GM, Kemp MB, Lind J. A cineradiographic study of bottle feeding. British Journal of Radiology 1958;31(361):11-22.

Ardran GM, Kemp MB, Lind J. A cineradiographic study of breast feeding. British Journal of Radiology 1958;31(363):156-162.
Carvalhaes MABL, Corrêa CRH. Identification of difficulties at the beginning of breastfeeding by means of protocol application. Jornal de Pediatria (Rio J) 2003;79(1):13-20.

Drewett RF, Woolridge M. Sucking patterns of human babies on the breast. Early Human Development 1979;3-4:315-320.

França ECL, Sousa CB, Aragäo LC, Costa LR. Electromyographic analysis of masseter muscle in newborns during suction in breast, bottle or cup feeding. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2014;14:154. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2393/14/154

Goldfield EC, Richardson MJ, Lee KG, Margetts S. Coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and oxygen saturation during early infant breast-feeding and bottle-feeding.
Pediatric Research 2006;60(4):450-455.

Gomes CF, Trezza EMC, Murade ECM, Padovani CR. Surface electromyography of facial muscles during natural and artificial feeding of infants. Jornal de Pediatria (Rio J) 2005;82:103-109.

Inoue N, Sakashita R, Kamegai T. Reduction of masseter muscle activity in bottle-fed babies. Early Human Development 2005;18:185-193.

Marmet C, Shell E. Training neonates to suck correctly. MCN (American Journal of Maternal and Child Nursing) 1984;9:401-407.

Mathew OP. Regulation of breathing patterns during feeding: Role of suck, swallow, and nutrients. In: Mathew OP, Sant’Ambrogio G (Eds.), Respiratory Function of the Upper Airway. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc., 1988:535-560.

McBride MC, Danner SC. Sucking disorders in neurologically impaired infants: assessment and facilitation of breastfeeding. Clinics in Perinatology 1987;14(1):109-130.

Meier P, Anderson GC. Responses of small preterm infants to bottle- and breast-feeding. MCN (American Journal of Maternal and Child Nursing 1987;12:97-105.

Meier P, Pugh EJ. Breast-feeding behavior of small preterm infants. MCN [American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing] 1985;10:396-401.

Palmer B. The influence of breastfeeding on the development of the oral cavity: a commentary. Journal of Human Lactation 1998;14:93-99.

Ramsay DT, Kent JC, Hartmann RL, Hartmann PE. Anatomy of the lactating human breast redefined with ultrasound imaging. Journal of Anatomy 2005;206:525-534.

Taki M, Mizuno K, Murase M, Nishida Y, Itabashi K, Mukai Y. Maturational changes in the feeding behavior of infants - - a comparison between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding. Acta Paediatrica 2010;99(1):61-67.

Weber F, Woolridge MW, Baum JD. An ultrasonographic study of the organization of sucking and swallowing by newborn infants. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 1986;28:19-24.

Wolff PH. The serial organization of sucking in the young infant. Pediatrics 1968;42:943-956.

Woolridge MW. The “anatomy” of infant sucking. Midwifery 1986;2:164-171.

IV. Differences in physiologic responses to breastfeeding movements and bottle-feeding movements:

Bier JB, Ferguson A, Morales Y, Liebling M, Oh W, Vohr B. Breastfeeding infants who were extremely low birth weight. Pediatrics 1997;100:e3.

Bier JAB, Ferguson A, Anderson L, Solomon E, Voltas C, Oh W, Vohr BR. Breast-feeding of very low birth weight infants. Journal of Pediatrics 1993;123:773-778.

Chen CH, Wang TM, Chang HM, Chi CS. The effect of breast- and bottle-feeding on oxygen saturation and body temperature in preterm infants. Journal of Human Lactation 2000;16:21-27.

Conde-Agudelo A, Belizan JM, Diaz-Rossello J. Kangaroo mother care to reduce morbidity and mortality in low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Review 2011;(3), CD002771.

Hammerman C, Kaplan M. Oxygen saturation during and after feeding in healthy term babies. Biology of the Neonate 1995;67(2):94-99.

Koenig JS, Davies AM, Thach BT. Coordination of breathing, sucking, and swallowing during bottle feedings in human infants. Journal of Applied Physiology 1990;69(5):1623-1629.

Krauss AN, Brown J, Waldman S, Gottlieb WS, Auld PAM. Pulmonary function following feeding in low birth weight infants. American Journal of Diseases in Children 1978;132:139-142.

Lundeen EC. Feeding the premature baby. American Journal of Nursing 1939;39(6):596-604.

Marín Gabriel MA, Llana Martín I, López Escobar A, Fernández Villalba E, Romero Blanco I, Touza Pol P. Randomized controlled trial of early skin-to-skin contact: Effects on the mother and the newborn. Acta Paediatrica 2010;99(11):1630-1634. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2009.01597.x

Mathew OP. Regulation of breathing patterns during feeding: Role of suck, swallow, and nutrients. In: Mathew OP, Sant’Ambrogio G (Eds.), Respiratory Function of the Upper Airway. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc., 1988:535-560.

Meier P. Bottle- and breast-feeding: effects on transcutaneous oxygen pressure and temperature in preterm infants. Nursing Research 1988;37:36-41.

Meier P, Anderson GC. Responses of small preterm infants to bottle- and breast-feeding. MCN (American Journal of Maternal and Child Nursing 1987;12:97-105.

Miller MJ, DiFiore JM. A comparison of swallowing during apnea and periodic breathing in premature infants. Pediatric Research 1995 June;37(6):796-799.

Moore ER, Anderson GC, Bergman N. Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2 APR 2007. DOI: 10.1002/14651858/CD003519.pub2

Rosen CL, Glaze DG, Frost JD Jr. Hypoxemia associated with feeding in the preterm infant and full-term neonate. American Journal of Diseases in Children 1984 July;138(7):623-628.

Yao AC, Wallgren CG, Sinha SN, Lind J. Peripheral circulatory response to feeding in the newborn infant. Pediatrics 1971;47(2):378-383.

V. Appendices I-V

Appendix I

The following 17 studies found an association with the use of pacifiers and premature cessation of exclusive or full breastfeeding (published from 2003 to 2014):

Benevenuto de Oliveira MM, Thomson Z, Vannuchi MTO, Matsuo T. Feeding patterns of Brazilian preterm infants during the first 6 months of life, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Journal of Human Lactation 2007;23:269-274.

Butler S, Williams M, Tukuitonga C, Paterson J. Factors associated with not breastfeeding exclusively among mothers of a cohort of Pacific infants in New Zealand. The New Zealand Medical Journal 2004;117(1195).

Carvalhaes MABL, Parada CMGL, Costa MP. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in children under four months old in Botucatu-SP, Brazil. Revista Latino- Americana de Enfermagem 2007;15(1):62-69.

do Nascimento MBR, Reis MAM, Franco SC, Issler H, Ferraro AA, Grisi SJFE. Exclusive breastfeeding in southern Brazil: Prevalence and associated factors. Breastfeeding Medicine. April 2010;5(2):79-85. DOI: 10.1089/bfm.2009.0008.

Franco SC, Nascimento MBR, Reis MAM, Issler H, Grisi SJFE. Exclusive breastfeeding in infants attending public health care units in the municipality of Joinville, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Revista Brasil de Saúde Materno Infantil 2008;8(3):291-297.

Koosha A, Hashemifesharaki R, Mousavinasab N. Breastfeeding patterns and factors determining exclusive breastfeeding. Singapore Medical Journal 2008;49(12):1002-1006.

Kronborg H, Vaeth M, Olsen J, Iversen L, Harder I. Effect of early postnatal breastfeeding support: a cluster-randomized community based trial. Acta Paediatrica 2007;96:1064-1070.

Mascarenhas ML, Albernaz EP, da Silva MB, da Silveira RB. Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and its determiners in the first 3 months of life in the South of Brazil. Jornal de Pediatria (Rio J) 2006;82(4):289-294.

Parizoto GM, Parada CMGL, Venâncio SI, Carvalhaes MABL. Trends and patterns of exclusive breastfeeding for under-6-month-old children. Jornal de Pediatria (Rio J) 2009;85(3):201-208.

Roig AO, Martínez MR, García JC, Hoyos SP, Navidad GL, Álvarez JCF, Pujalte MMC, González RGL. Factors associated to breastfeeding cessation before 6 months. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem (Latin American Journal of Nursing) 2010 May-June; 18(3):373-380.

Santiago LB, Bettiol H, Barbieri MA, Guttierrez MRP, Ciampo LAD. Promotion of breastfeeding: the importance of pediatricians with specific training. Jornal de Pediatria (Rio J) 2003;79(6):504-512.

Santo LCdE, de Oliveira LD, Giugliani ERJ. Factors associated with low incidence of exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months. Birth 2007;34(3):212-219.

Silva MB, Albernaz EP, Mascarenhas ML, Silveira RB. Influence of breastfeeding support on the exclusive breastfeeding of babies in the first month of life and born in the city of Pelotas, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Revista Brasil de Saúde Materno Infantil 2008;8(3):275-284.

Vieira TO, Vieira GO, de Oliveira NF, Mendes CM, Giugliani ER, Silva LR. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding in a Brazilian population: new determinants in a cohort study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2014 May 26;14:175. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-14-175.

Vieira GO, Reis MR, Vieira TO, Oliveira NF, Silva LR, Giugliani ER. Trends in breastfeeding indicators in a city of northeastern Brazil. Jornal de Pediatria (Rio J) 2015 May-Jun;91(3):270-7. DOI:10.1016/j.jped.2014.08.012. Epub 2015 Feb 9.

Vieira GO, Martins CC, Vieira TO, de Oliveira NF, Silva LR. Factors predicting early discontinuation of exclusive breastfeeding in the first month of life. Jornal de Pediatria (Rio J) 2010;86(5):441-444.

Xu F, Binns C, Zheng S, Wang Y, Zhao Y, Lee A. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding duration in Xinjiang, PR China. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007;16(2):316-321.

Appendix II

The following 23 studies published from 1989 to 2016 correlated the use of pacifiers with early termination of the entire breastfeeding course:

Benis MM. Are pacifiers associated with early weaning from breastfeeding? Advances in Neonatal Care 2002;2(5):259-266.

Binns C, Scott JA. Using pacifiers. What are breastfeeding mothers doing? Breastfeeding Review 2002;10:21-25.

Callendret M, Gelbert-Baudino N, Raskovalova T, Piskunov D, Schelstraëte C, Durand M, Baudino F, Francois P, Equy V, Labarere J. Hospital practices and breastfeeding cessation risk within 6 months of delivery. Archives de Pédiatrie 2015 September;22(9):924-931. DOI:10.1016/j.arcped.2015.06.017.

Dashti M, Scott JA, Edwards CA, Al-Sughayer M. Predictors of breastfeeding duration among women in Kuwait: Results of a prospective cohort study. Nutrients 2014;6:711-728. DOI: 10.3390/nu6020711

Ego A, Dubos JP, Djavadzadeh-Amini M, Depinoy MP, Louyot J, Codaccioni X. Premature weaning of breastfeeding. Archives de Pédiatrie 2003;10(1):11-18.

Gale Mobbs EJ. Human imprinting and breastfeeding - - are the textbooks deficient? Breastfeeding Review 1989;1(14):39-41.

Giovannini M, Riva E, Banderali G, Scaglioni S, Veehof SHE, Sala M, Radelli G, Agostoni C. Feeding practices of infants through the first year of life in Italy. Acta Paediatrica 2004;93(4):492-497.

Görbe Ë, Kõhalmi B, Gaál G, Szánthó A, Rigó J, Harmath Á, Csabay L, Szabó G. The relationship between pacifier use, bottle feeding and breast feeding. Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 2002 Aug;12(2):127-131.

Nickel NC, Labbok MH, Hudgens MG, Daniels JL. The extent that noncompliance with the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding influences breastfeeding duration. Journal of Human Lactation 2013 Feb;29(1):59-70.

Kloeblen-Tanver AS. Pacifier use is associated with shorter breastfeeding duration among low-income women. Pediatrics 2001;108(2):526.

Kramer MS, Barr RG, Dagenais S, Yang H, Jones P, Ciofani L, Jané F. Pacifier use, early weaning, and cry/fuss behavior: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) 2001;286(3):322-326.

Labarére J, Dalla-Lana C, Schelstraete C, Rivier A, Callec M, Polverelli JF, Francois P. Initiation and duration of breastfeeding in obstetrical hospitals of Aix-Chambery (France). Archives De Pédiatrie 2001 Aug;8(8):807-815.

Levinienė G, Tamulevičienė E, Kudzytė J, Petrauskienė A, Zaborskis A, Aželienė I, Labanauskas L. Factors associated with breastfeeding duration. Medicina (Kaunas) 2013;49(9):4115-421.

Levy SM, Slager SL, Warren JJ, Levy BT, Nowak AJD. Associations of pacifier use, digit sucking, and child care attendance with cessation of breastfeeding. Journal of Family Practice 2002;51:465-471.

Pansy J, Zotter H, Sauseng H, Schneuber S, Lang U, Kerbl R. Pacifier use: What makes mothers change their mind? Acta Paediatrica 2008;97:968-971.

Perrine CG, Scanlon KS, Li R, Odom E, Grummer-Strawn LM. Baby-Friendly hospital practices and meeting exclusive breastfeeding intention. Pediatrics 2012 July;130(1):54-60. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2011-3633.

Pincombe J, Baghurst P, Antoniou G, Peat B, Henderson A, Reddin E. Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative practices and breast feeding duration in a cohort of first-time mothers in Adelaide, Australia. Midwifery 2008;24:55-61.

Righard L, Alade MO. Breastfeeding and the use of pacifiers. Birth 1997;24(2):116-120.

Ruis JM, Ortuño J, Rivas C, Maravall M, Calzado MA, López A, Aguar M, Vento M. Factors associated with early weaning in a Spanish region. An Pediatr (Barc) 2014 January;80(1):6-15. DOI: 10.1016/j.anpedi.2013.05.011. Epub 2013 Oct 3.

Silveira FJ, Lamounier JA. Factors associated with breastfeeding duration in three cities in the region of Alto Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Caderno De Saúde Pública 2006;22(1):69-77.

Tavoulari E-F, Benetou V, Vlastarakos PV, Psaltopoulou T, Chrousos G, Kreatsas G, Gryparis A, Linos A. Factors affecting breastfeeding duration in Greece: What is important? World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics 2016 August 8;5(3): 349-357 Published online August 8, 2016. doi: 10.5409/WJCP.v5.i3.349

Vieira GO, Reis MR, Vieira TO, Oliveira NF, Silva LR, Giugliani ER. Trends in breastfeeding indicators in a city of northeastern Brazil. Jornal de Pediatria (Rio J) 2015 May-Jun;91(3):270-7. DOI:10.1016/j.jped.2014.08.012. Epub 2015 Feb 9.

Vogel AM, Hutchinson BL, Mitchell EA. Factors associated with the duration of breastfeeding. Acta Paediatrica 1999;88:1320-1326.

Appendix III

The following 26 studies published between 1993 and 2009 found an association between pacifier use and both early termination of exclusive breastfeeding and the overall breastfeeding course:

Aarts C, Hörnell A, Kylberg E, Hofvander Y, Gebre-Medhin M. Breastfeeding patterns in relation to thumbsucking and pacifier use. Pediatrics 1999;104;e50.

Audi CAF, Corrêa AMS, Latorre MRDO. Complementary feeding and factors associated to breast-feeding and exclusive breast-feeding among infant up to 12 months of age, Itapira, São Paulo, 1999. Revista Brasileira de Saúde Materno Infantil 2003;3(1):85-93.

Barros FC, Victora CG, Semer TC, Tonioli Filho S, Tomasi E, Weiderpass E. Use of pacifiers is associated with decreased breast-feeding duration. Pediatrics 1995;95:497-499.

Chaves RG, Lamounier JA, César CC. Factors associated with duration of breastfeeding. Jornal de Pediatria (Rio J) 2007;83(3):241-246.

Clements MS, Mitchell EA, Wright SP, Esmail A, Jones DR, Ford RPK. Influences on breast-feeding in southeast England. Acta Paediatrica 1997;86:51-56.

Cotrim LC, Venancio SI, Escuder MML. Pacifier use and breast-feeding in children under four months old in the State of São Paulo. Revista Brasil de Saúde Materno Infantil 2002;2(3):245-252.

Cunha AJ, Leite AM, Machado MM. Breastfeeding and pacifier use in Brazil. Indian Journal of Pediatrics 2005;72(3):209-212.

Dulon M, Kersting M, Schach S. Duration of breastfeeding and associated factors in Western and Eastern Germany. Acta Paediatrica 2001;90:931-935.

Ford RPK, Mitchell EA, Scragg R, Stewart AW, Taylor BJ, Allen EM. Factors adversely associated with breast feeding in New Zealand. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 1994;30:483-489.

Hörnell A, Aarts C, Kylberg E, Hofvander Y, Gebre-Medhin M. Breastfeeding patterns in exclusively breastfed infants: a longitudinal prospective study in Uppsala, Sweden. Acta Paediatrica 1999;88:203-211.

Howard CR, Howard FM, Lanphear B, Eberly S, deBlieck EA, Oakes D, Lawrence RA. Randomized clinical trial of pacifier use and bottle feeding or cup feeding and their effect on breastfeeding. Pediatrics 2003;111(3):511-518.

Howard CR, Howard FM, Lanphear B, deBlieck EA, Eberly S, Lawrence RA. The effects of early pacifier use on breastfeeding duration. Pediatrics 1999;103(3):e33.

Kelmanson IA. Use of a pacifier and behavioural features in 2-4-month-old infants. Acta Paediatrics 1999;88:1258-1261.

Kronborg H, Vaeth M. How are effective breastfeeding technique and pacifier use related to breastfeeding problems and breastfeeding duration? Birth 2009;36(1):34-42.

Moimaz Suzely AS, Zina LG, Saliba NA, Saliba O. Association between breast-feeding practices and sucking habits: A cross-sectional study of children in their first year of life. Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry 2008;26(3):102-106.

Nelson EAS, Yu LM, Williams S, International Child Care Practices Study Group Members. International Child Care Practices Study: Breastfeeding and pacifier use. Journal of Human Lactation 2005;21(3):289-285.

Ramos CV, Almeida JAG, da Costa Alberto NSM, Teles JBM, Saldiva SRDM. Diagnosis of the situation with breastfeeding in Piauí State, Brazil. Caderno De Saúde Pública 2008;24(8):1753-1762.

Riva E, Banderali G, Agostoni C, Silano M, Radaelli G, Giovannini M. Factors associated with initiation and duration of breastfeeding in Italy. Acta Paediatrica 1999;88:411-415.

Saliba NA, Zina LG, Moimaz SAS, Saliba O. Frequency and associated variables to breastfeeding among infant up to 12 months of age in Araҫatube, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Saúde Materno Infantil, Recife, 2008;8(4):481-490.

Scott JA, Binns CW, Oddy WH, Graham KI. Predictors of breastfeeding duration: Evidence from a cohort study. Pediatrics 2006;117:e646-e655.

Soares MEM, Giugliani ERJ, Braun ML, Salgado ACN, Oliveira AP, Aguiar PR. Pacifier use and its relationship with early weaning in infants born at a Child-Friendly Hospital. Jornal de Pediatria (Rio J) 2003;79:309-316.

Vannuchi MTO, Thomson Z, Escuder MML, Tacla MTGM, Vezozzo KMK, Castro LMCP, Oliveira MMB, Venancio SI. Breastfeeding profile in babies below one year old in the municipality of Londrina, State of Parana, Brazil. Revista Brasileira Saúde Materno Infantil 2005;5(2):155-162.

Victora CG, Behague DP, Barros FC, Olinto MTA, Weiderpass E. Pacifier use and short breastfeeding duration: cause, consequence, or coincidence? Pediatrics 1997;99:445-453.

Victora CG, Tomasi E, Olinto MTA, Barros FC. Use of pacifiers and breastfeeding duration. The Lancet 1993;341:404-406.

Vieira GO, Almeida JAG, Silva LR, Cabral VA, Netto PVS. Breast feeding and weaning associated factors, Feira de Santana, Bahia. Revista Brasil de Saúde Materno Infantil 2004;4(2):143-150.

Vogel AM, Hutchinson BL, Mitchell EA. The impact of pacifier use in breastfeeding: a prospective cohort study. Journal of Paediatric and Child Health 2001;37:58-63.

Appendix IV

The following 22 studies published from 1988 to 2014 correlated the use of artificial infant milk/”formula” with shorter duration of the breastfeeding course:

Abada TSJ, Trovato F, Lalu N. Determinants of breastfeeding in the Philippines: a survival analysis. Social Science and Medicine 2001;52:71-81.

Bolton TA, Chow T, Benton PA, Olson BH. Characteristics associated with longer breastfeeding duration: An analysis of a peer counseling support program. Journal of Human Lactation 2009;25(1):18-27. DOI: 10.1177/0890334408325985

Bueno MB, Souza JMP, Sampaio da Paz SMR, Souza SB, Cheung PPY, Augusto RA. Duration of breastfeeding after the introduction of another milk: a cohort follow-up of children born in a university hospital in São Paulo. Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia 2002;5(2):145-152.

Chantry CJ, Dewey KG, Peerson JM, Wagner EA, Nommsen-Rivers LA. In-hospital formula use increases early breastfeeding cessation among first-time mothers intending to exclusively breastfeed. Journal of Pediatrics 2014 February 9. pii: S0022-3476(13)01581-3. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.12.035. [Epub ahead of print]

Dulon M, Kersting M, Schach S. Duration of breastfeeding and associated factors in Western and Eastern Germany. Acta Paediatrica 2001;90:931-935.

Faldella G, Comite AD, Marchiani E, Govoni M, Salvioli GP. Breastfeeding duration and current neonatal feeding practices in Emilia Romagna, Italy. Acta Paediatrica 1999;Suppl 430:23-26.

Forster DA, McLachlan HL, Lumley J. Factors associated with breastfeeding at six months postpartum in a group of Australian women. International Breastfeeding Journal 2006 October;1:18.

Giugliani ERJ, Espírito Santo LC, Oliveira LD, Aerts D. Intake of water, herbal teas and non-breast milks during the first month of life: Associated factors and impact on breastfeeding duration. Early Human Development 2008;84:305-310.

Giovannini M, Riva E, Banderali G, Scaglioni S, Veehof SHE, Sala M, Radelli G, Agostoni C. Feeding practices of infants through the first year of life in Italy. Acta Paediatrica 2004;93(4):492-497.

Görbe Ë, Kõhalmi B, Gaál G, Szánthó A, Rigó J, Harmath Á, Csabay L, Szabó G. The relationship between pacifier use, bottle feeding and breast feeding. Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 2002 Aug;12(2):127-131.

Hörnell A, Hofvander Y, Kylberg E. Solids and formula: Association with pattern and duration of breastfeeding. Pediatrics 2001;107(3);e38.

Kurinij N, Shiono PH, Rhoads GG. Breast-feeding incidence and duration in black and white women. Pediatrics 1988;81:365-371.

Loughlin HH, Clapp-Channing NE, Gehlbach SH, Pollard JC, McCutcheon TM. Early termination of breast-feeding: identifying those at risk. Pediatrics 1985;75:508-513.

Marques NM, Lira PIC, Lima MC, da Silva NL, Filho MB, Huttly SRA, Ashworth A. Breastfeeding and Early Weaning Practices in Northeast Brazil: A Longitudinal Study. Pediatrics 2001;108;e66.

Michaelsen KM, Larsen PS, Thomsen BL, Samuelson G. The Copenhagen cohort study on infant nutrition and growth: duration of breast feeding and influencing factors. Acta Paediatrica 1994;83(6):565-571.

Moimaz Suzely AS, Zina LG, Saliba NA, Saliba O. Association between breast-feeding practices and sucking habits: A cross-sectional study of children in their first year of life. Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry 2008;26(3):102-106.

Parry JE, Ip DKM, Chau PYK, Wu KM, Tarrant M. Predictors and Consequences of In-Hospital Supplementation for Healthy Breastfeeding Newborns. Journal of Human Lactation 2013;29(4):527-536. DOI: 10.1177/0890334412474719

Tarrant M, Lok KY, Fong DY, Lee IL, Sham A, Lam C, Wu KM, Bai DL, Wong KL, Wong EM, Chan NP, Dodgson JE. Effect of a hospital policy of not accepting free infant formula on in-hospital formula supplementation rates and breast-feeding duration. Public Health Nutrition 2015 February 27;1-11. [Epub ahead of print]

Tarrant M, Fong DYT, Wu KM, Lee ILY, Wong EMY, Sham A, Lam C, Dodgson JE. Breastfeeding and weaning practices among Hong Kong mothers: a prospective study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2010;10:27-36.

Tarrant RC, Younger KM, Sheridan-Pereira M, Kearney JM. Factors associated with duration of breastfeeding in Ireland: Potential areas for improvement. Journal of Human Lactation 2011;27(3):262-271.

Vogel AM, Hutchinson BL, Mitchell EA. Factors associated with the duration of breastfeeding. Acta Paediatrica 1999;88:1320-1326.

Winikoff B, Castle MA, Laukaran VH, Eds (1988). Feeding Infants in Four Societies: Causes and Consequences of Mother’s Choices. New York: Greenwood Press.

Appendix V

These nine studies correlated the use of bottles with shorter duration of breastfeeding, published between 1993 and 2008:

Görbe Ë, Kõhalmi B, Gaál G, Szánthó A, Rigó J, Harmath Á, Csabay L, Szabó G. The relationship between pacifier use, bottle feeding and breast feeding. Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 2002 Aug;12(2):127-131.

Howard CR, Howard FM, Lanphear B, Eberly S, deBlieck EA, Oakes D, Lawrence RA. Randomized clinical trial of pacifier use and bottle feeding or cup feeding and their effect on breastfeeding. Pediatrics 2003;111(3):511-518.

Lima TM, Osório MM. Breast-feeding: profile and associated factors in children under 25 months of age in Northeast Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Saúde Materno Infantil 2003;3(3):305-314.

Moimaz Suzely AS, Zina LG, Saliba NA, Saliba O. Association between breast-feeding practices and sucking habits: A cross-sectional study of children in their first year of life. Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry 2008;26(3):102-106.

Pincombe J, Baghurst P, Antoniou G, Peat B, Henderson A, Reddin E. Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative practices and breast feeding duration in a cohort of first-time mothers in Adelaide, Australia. Midwifery 2008;24:55-61.

Ramos CV, Almeida JAG, da Costa Alberto NSM, Teles JBM, Saldiva SRDM. Diagnosis of the situation with breastfeeding in Piauí State, Brazil. Caderno De Saúde Pública 2008;24(8):1753-1762.

Righard L. Early enhancement of successful breast-feeding. World Health Forum 1996;17:92-97.

Saliba NA, Zina LG, Moimaz SAS, Saliba O. Frequency and associated variables to breastfeeding among infant up to 12 months of age in Araҫatube, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Saúde Materno Infantil, Recife, 2008;8(4):481-490.

Victora CG, Tomasi E, Olinto MTA, Barros FC. Use of pacifiers and breastfeeding duration. The Lancet 1993;341:404-406.

VI. Infant Learning Labs

Berkeley Early Learning Lab at the University of California, Berkeley http://babylab.berkeley.edu/ Fei Xy PhD

Binghamton University Infant and Child Studies Project http://www.binghamton.edu/baby/ Dr. Peter Gerhardstein, Project Director

Boston College Infant and Child Cognition Lab https://www2.bc.edu/sara-cordes/lab/ Dr. Sara Cordes, Principal Investigator

Carnegie Mellon University Infant Cognition Lab http://www.psy.cmu.edu/~rakison/Infant Cognition Lab/ David Rakison DPhil

Cornell University Behavioral Analysis of Beginning Years (B.A.B.Y.) Laboratory http://www.babylab.psych.cornell.edu Directors Michael Goldstein PhD and Jennifer Schwade PhD

Harvard University Laboratory for Developmental Studies https://software.rc.fas.harvard.edu/lds/research

Indiana University Baby Language Lab http://www.indiana.edu/~babylab/babylab.html Lisa Gershkoff-Stowe, Director

Johns Hopkins University Laboratory for Child Development http://www.psy.jhu.edu/~labforchilddevelopment Faculty: Lisa Feigenson PhD, Justin Halberda PhD

Northwestern University Infant Cognition Laboratory http://sites.northwestern.edu/infantcognitionlab/ Susan J. Hespos PhD, Principal Investigator

The Ohio State University Infant Lab http://www.infantlab.osu.edu/Research.html Dr. Jill Heathcock, Lab Director

Princeton University Baby Lab https://babylab.princeton.edu/ Lauren Emberson PhD and Casey Lew-Williams PhD, Co-Directors

Rutgers University Infancy Studies Laboratory http://babylab.rutgers.edu/HOME.html April Benasich PhD, Lab Director

The Swinburne BabyLab at Swinburne University of Technology Dr. Jordy Kaufman, Director http://www.swinburne.edu.au/lss/bsi/babylab/infant-research.html

Temple University Infant and Child Lab http://www.templeinfantlab.com Dr. Kathryn Hirsh-Pasek and Dr. Nora Newcombe, Lab Directors

Texas A&M University Infant Cognition Lab http://infantcognition.tamu.edu Dr. Teresa Wilcox, Director

The University of British Columbia Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Lab http://www.devcogneuro.com Adele Diamond PhD FRSC, Lab Director

University of California, Davis Infant Cognition Lab http://www.oakeslab.ucdavis.edu Dr. Lisa Oakes, Principal Investigator

University of Cambridge Baby-LINC Lab (Learning through Interpersonal Neural Communication) http://www.baby-linc.psychol.cam.ac.uk From the website: "Our research is about how mothers and their babies engage with each other during the process of learning. Mothers are their baby's first, natural teachers. Even before her infant learns verbal language, a mother will use non-verbal cues like gaze and touch to engage her baby's attention, and to teach her about the world. Although joint (shared) attention is important for helping babies to learn from important social partners, very little is currently known about how our brains behave and engage during these moments of shared attention. We are interested in whether mothers' and babies' patterns of brain activity become more synchronised when both are paying close attention to each other, and whether this brain-to-brain synchronisation might help to support babies' early steps in learning."

The University of Chicago Infant Learning and Development Laboratory http://woodwardlab.uchicago.edu/Home.html Amanda Woodward, Laboratory Director

University of Florida Brain, Cognition & Development Lab http://www.psych.ufl.edu/bcdlab/ Lisa S. Scott, Associate Professor and Lab Director

The University of Georgia Infant Research Lab http://infantlab.uga.edu/ Janet Frick PhD, Lab Director

University of Illinois Infant Cognition Laboratory http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/infantlab/index/html Renee Baillargeon PhD

University of Louisville Infant Cognition Lab http://louisville.edu/psychology/cashon/lab Cara H. Cashon PhD, Principal Investigator

University of Massachusetts http://www.umass.edu/pbs/research/laboratories This site includes links to UM's Infant Cognition Lab (Dr. Erik Cheries, Principal Investigator); the Infant Motor Lab (Dr. Neil Berthier, Principal Investigator); the Healey Lab, which is focused on the neural basis of natural behavior (Dr. Luke Remage-Healey, Principal Investigator); and the Neuro Learning & Performance Laboratory (Youngbin Kwak PhD, Principal Investigator).

University of Notre Dame http://www3.nd.edu/~babylab/Infant_Studies_Lab/Home.html Dr. Jill Lany, Principal Investigator

University of Rochester Baby Lab http://babylab.bcs.rochester.edu Richard N. Aslin PhD and Celeste Kidd PhD, Directors

University of Tennessee, Knoxville Infant Language and Perceptual Learning Lab http://infantlanguagelab.utk.edu Dr. Jessica Hay PhD, Director

The University of Texas at Dallas Infant Learning Project http://www.utdallas.edu/bbs/ilp Dr. Melanie Spence, Director

University of Virginia Baby Lab http://www.uvababylab.org Dr. Tobias Grossman, Lab Director

University of Washington Institute for Learning & Brain Sciences (I-LABS) http://ilabs.washington.edu/ Patricia K. Kuhl PhD and Andrew Meltzoff PhD, Co-Directors

University of Wisconsin-Madison Infant Learning Lab https://infantlearning.waisman.wisc.edu Jenny Saffran PhD, Principal Investigator

Vanderbilt University Infant Learning Lab https://my.vanderbilt.edu/infantlearninglab/ Dr. Amy Needham, Principal Investigator. From the website: "Amy Needham's research has explored many questions in our three main areas of study. One question that has been of interest to her for a number of years is how infants find boundaries around objects. Her current questions particularly focus on perceptual and motor learning in infancy." Dr. Maninderjit (Mandy) Kaur is a Postdoctoral Fellow with a PhD in Biomechanics and Movement Sciences as well as a M.S. in Kinesiology and a B.S. in Physical Therapy.

Western Sydney University Infant Research Centre/BabyLab
https://www.westernsydney.edu.au/babylab/about Dr. Marina Kalashnikova, Leader. Research Program: Speech and Language. Please also see Associate Professor Gabrielle Weidemann and her areas of study, including the role that associative learning and memory play in the acquisition of likes and dislikes, as well as the role that conscious expectancy plays in mediating the conditioned response. https://www.westernsydney.edu.au/babylab/our_team/dr_gabrielle_weidemann

Whitman College Infant Learning and Development Lab https://www.whitman.edu/academics/departments-and-programs/psychology/laboratories/infant-learning-and-development-lab Melissa Clearfield PhD

Wilbourn Infant Lab at Duke http://wild.psych.duke.edu/people.html Makeba Wilbourn PhD, Director

Yale University Infant Cognition Center http://www.campuspress.yale.edu/infantlab/ Dr. Karen Wynn, Lab Director

VII. Videos on Learning

Georgetown psychology professor Rachel Barr researches learning and memory in babies, with a focus on infant learning from touch-screens: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_wOlaZIApTY

Dr. Patricia Kuhl from the University of Washington discusses language acquisition in infancy from the Charlie Rose Brain Series: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kfx4iF8_ZO8

Dr. Patricia Kuhl speaking at TED Talks: "The Linguistic Genius of Babies" https://www.ted.com/talks/patricia_kuhl_the_linguistic_genius_of_babies

Johns Hopkins researchers: Babies learn from surprises https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oJjt5GRln-0

Developmental cognitive neuroscientist Adele Diamond on the power of executive function and the impact on learning in childhood: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=StASHLru28s

Dr. Renee Baillergeon on how infants learn: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zd7OIDm_btM

University of California at Berkeley child development psychologist Alison Gopnik on infant cognition: http://www.ted.com/talks/alison_gopnik_what_do_babies_think#t-310756

MIT cognitive scientist Laura Schulz on reasoning in babies: http://www.ted.com/talks/laura_schulz_the_surprisingly_logical_minds_of_babies

Yale psychologist Karen Wynn studies altruism in infants, finding infants’ preferences for pro-social individuals over anti-social individuals: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F-UQkDs9I0I

From NYU’s Action Lab: The specificity of motor learning in babies (1): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1MIyjUo-zF0

The specificity of motor learning in babies (2): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kBkqDqVge_c

The specificity of motor learning in babies (3): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MYW68cP55ak

Princeton neuroscientist Elizabeth Gould: How does experience shape the brain? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N-txqhxv01Q

Psychologist Alan Baddeley on working memory: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yL2ul2bR0Ok

Historical film clips of the late Esther Thelen working with infants on motor development studies: www.youtube.com/watch?v=RI3t_hsFzXO

A typical child sorting cards, at least on Phil Zelazo’s card-sorting task, as followed up by Munakata & Yerys. The first link is the shorter, 2-minute version. The second is a 6-minute video. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0L7xzcvJzZchttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tXZau5VIIvU

Dr. Barry Seemungal discussing his 2013 study, The Neuroanatomical Correlates of Training-Related Perceptuo-Reflex Uncoupling in Dancers, in the journal, Cerebral Cortex (Nigmatullina Y, Hellyer PJ, Nachev P, Sharp DJ, Seemungal B). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eM-j6nj466c